Archiv 2019

Raum: Seminar Room IV, O1.111
CANCELLATION - Please note that due to the spread of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) this seminar has been cancelled. [mehr]

Cavity Optomagnonics

MPSD Seminar
Optomagnonics studies the quantum-coherent coupling of light to collective magnetic excitations in solid state systems. The magnetic material hosting the magnetic excitations can be also used as an optical cavity if patterned appropriately. This not only enhances the magnon-photon coupling (making these systems promising for applications in quantum technologies) but also allows studying cavity-modified light-matter interaction in a novel platform. In my talk I will go over the basics of cavity optomagnonics and present results on recent theory developments in my group, including optomagnonics with magnetic textures, optical heralding of magnon Fock states, and antiferromagnetic cavity optomagnonics.

Controlling superconductivity with the electromagnetic vacuum

MPSD Seminar
Exploiting light-matter interactions to control collective quantum phenomena in solids is an ongoing broad research effort. In particular, it is known that superconductivity can be strongly modified using an external radiation [1-3]. In the absence of the latter, it is an interesting question whether superconductivity induced by conventional Cooper pairing may be also affected by coupling phonons to the electromagnetic field confined in a cavity with enhanced vacuum fluctuations [4,5]. [mehr]
We present a comprehensive theoretical framework for interaction of an ultrashort light pulse with a thin material based on the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) [1] . We introduce a microscopic description solving the Maxwell equations for the light electromagnetic fields and the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equation for the electron dynamics simultaneously in the time domain on a common real-space grid. This scheme can simulate the light-matter interaction in thin films irrespective of the film thickness and the light intensity. [mehr]

Valley Jahn-Teller effect in Twisted Bilayer Graphene

MPSD Seminar
The surprising insulating and superconducting states of narrow-band graphene twisted bilayers have been mostly discussed so far in terms of strong electron correlation, with little or no attention to phonons and electron-phonon effects. We found that, among the 33492 phonons of a fully relaxed 1.08° twisted bilayer, there are few special, hard, and nearly dispersionless modes that resemble global vibrations of the moiré supercell ('moirè phonons'). [mehr]

Coupled cluster theory with applications to conical intersections and quantum electrodynamics

MPSD Seminar
I will review different aspects of coupled cluster theory with focus on recent developments. In particular, similarity constrained coupled cluster theory1 for conical intersections and nonadiabatic dynamics, pump-probe simulations using time-dependent coupled cluster theory2 and coupled cluster theory for strong light-matter interactions (Cavity QED chemistry).3 [mehr]

Transient Chirality in Chemistry and Biology: Capturing the Structural Evolution of Molecules in Solution

Most biological functions and many chemical processes are driven by chiral nanoscale molecular machines in solution, whose structures evolve on multiple time and length scales: from the ultrafast rotations of photo-driven synthetic molecular motors to the global conformational changes of proteins on the microsecond time scale. Yet capturing the associated conformational transitions in real-time continues to be a formidable experimental challenge, as prominent established methods come with their own limitations: solution nuclear magnetic resonance is limited to millisecond real-time resolution, whilst solution X-Ray scattering requires large-scale X-Ray facilities. A promising laboratory-based alternative is circular dichroism (CD), the absorption difference of left- and right-handed circularly polarized light, which is sensitive to the chiral geometrical arrangement of light-absorbing chemical groups within a molecular system. Steady-state CD is already a well-established tool in the far and middle ultraviolet (UV) < 300 nm, where equilibrium structures of proteins, DNA and functional chiral organic complexes are routinely characterized. However, pushing this technique into the time-domain has remained a challenge for over three decades, with only few isolated reports with sub-nanosecond resolution [1]. In this talk, I will present a technological breakthrough with the first time-resolved CD (TRCD) spectrometer that combines highly sensitive broadband UV-detection (250-370 nm) with pulsed laser sources and sub-picosecond time-resolution [2]. With this instrument, it is now possible to extract broadband CD spectra of photo-excited molecular states and follow their transient chirality changes with femtosecond resolution. This is opening a new avenue for capturing solution-phase structural dynamics in chemical and biological systems that I will illustrate with two examples: the coupling of electronic and structural dynamics in a chiral supramolecular metal-complex [3], and the application of a site-specific CD-label to track conformational changes of the peptide backbone [4]. On this basis I will present future developments that will establish TRCD as a complementary method for research in protein dynamics and chiral photochemistry, where the chirality of excited electronic states is the key design feature of chiral organic light-emitting diode materials and unidirectional molecular motors, for example. [mehr]

Electronic dynamics of strange metals

MPSD Seminar
The normal state of unconventional superconductors often exhibits anomalous transport properties and it is commonly referred to as a “bad” or “strange” metal. Understanding its collective charge dynamics, which defies the standard quasiparticle description of a Fermi liquid, is an outstanding challenge of modern condensed matter physics.In this talk, I will present a direct measurement of the collective charge dynamics of the strange metal using inelastic electron scattering. First, I will discuss how normal-state Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+d is defined by a featureless, localized continuum, undergoing a low-temperature massive spectral weight redistribution. I will then describe how such a phase is found to coexist with a low-energy Fermi liquid in Sr2RuO4.These results indicate that strange metals are highly localized in space and dissipate on ultrafast timescales, seemingly bound only by quantum limits. Implications for the occurrence of high-temperature superconductivity will be discussed. [mehr]

Gauge issues in the description of solids with strong light-matter coupling

MPSD Seminar
The rich physics of complex condensed matter systems is largely understood in terms of minimal tight-binding models, which describe interacting electron systems on a lattice with only few valence orbitals per site. To incorporate a strong light-matter coupling into such models, one can project the continuum theory on a given set of valence bands. [mehr]

Relativistic ultra-intense laser-plasma physics: from classical to QED regimes

MPSD Seminar
Ultra-intense lasers deliver unprecedented energy densities within microscopic volumes and shortest time spans, as exemplified by last year’s Physics Nobel Prize. Today, these lasers facilitate many compact technical applications such as particle accelerators and sources of intense electromagnetic radiation. And the next development stages promise significant technical advancements as well as deep insights into fundamental science ranging from nonlinear quantum field theory to studying the complex quantum vacuum itself. [mehr]

Full Quantum Nature of Water on Salt Surface

MPSD Seminar
Despite water being a ubiquitous substance, it is surprising that some basic questions are still debated. Here using a combination of experimental (cryogenic STM) and theoretical (first-principle electronic structures and molecular dynamics) methods, we systematically studied the unusual structure and dynamics of water molecules on NaCl surface. More interestingly, for the first time, we observe the full quantum effect and magic number hydrates in water system. These results shed light on our understanding of water at atomic scale. [mehr]

Ultrafast single-molecule videography and choreography

MPSD Seminar
To understand the function of condensed matter, it would be desirable to directly watch its atomistic building blocks dynamically interact on their intrinsic length and time scales. Recently, lightwave electronics has made this long-standing dream come true. The idea is to exploit the carrier wave of light as an ultrafast, contact-free bias to interrogate and control the nanocosm. I will first review how lightwaves can drive electrons in solids into surprising sub-cycle quantum motion. By combining this idea with the sub-angstrom spatial resolution of scanning tunnelling microscopy we can set an ultrashort time window for single-electron tunnelling into a single orbital and record first atom-scale slow-motion movies of individual vibrating molecules. Finally, I will show how to directly exert femtosecond atomic forces, which can selectively choreograph a coherent structural motion of a single-molecule switch in its electronic ground state. This stunningly direct access to the atomistic world may tailor key elementary dynamics in nature and steer (bio)chemical reactions or ultrafast phase transitions, on their intrinsic spatio-temporal scales. [mehr]
High harmonic generation (HHG) from crystalline solids has become a playground in ultrafast phenomena. In contrast to noble gases, crystalline solids have rich physical properties, e.g. anharmonic energy dispersion, anisotropy depending on crystalline axis, strong electron-hole correlation, and so on. While the three-step model for HHG and its generalizations are successfully applicable to several situations, a deviation from the theoretical prediction is one of the most interesting physics in this field. To understand such deviations in solid-state HHG experiments, we need to go beyond the three-step model or along different directions. I will mainly talk about our recent trials to understand solid-state HHG, electron-hole attraction inclusion based on Hartree-Fock theory for 1D model crystal, and an ab-initio approach based on density-functional theory for 3D bulk solid comparing with experiments. [mehr]

Tuning quantum materials out of equilibrium: A FIB-microstructuring approach

MPSD Seminar
“Quantum materials” loosely defines a broad collection of materials whose ground states are defined by unusual quantum properties. This research largely focuses on macroscopic single crystals, yet naturally interesting quantum phenomena lie beyond their equilibrium state. My group works towards reducing the sample size onto the sub-mm length scale, following the general idea that small samples can be driven more strongly and react faster than on the macro scale. Our main tool is Focused Ion Beam machining capable of cutting single crystals into high quality quantum devices. I will present two concrete research projects showcasing how new quantum states out of equilibrium can be accessed and investigated in FIB-prepared microcrystal structures. The first concerns the heavy fermion superconductor, CeIrIn5 (Tc~400mK). When a mm-sized structure is firmly coupled to a mm-sized substrate of different thermal expansion, the microstructure is under significant strain at low temperatures. By precisely controlling its shape, the emergent strain field can be controlled. The key difference to other approaches, such as uniaxial strain, is that complex, yet well-controlled, spatially varying strain fields can be achieved. In collaboration with Katja Nowack (Cornell), we have experimentally mapped out the resulting superconducting landscape in the devices using scanning-SQUID microscopy, and show that this spatial modulation can be well captured by finite element simulations. [1] Second, I will present our ongoing efforts to experimentally identify pseudo-magnetic fields in 3D Dirac semi-metals [2,3]. Owing to their Dirac dispersion, deformation of the crystal structure does not open a gap at the nodes, but shifts the location of the nodes in k-space and hence playing the role of a “pseudo-magnetic field”, B5. I will show how microstructuring gives us unprecedented control of such a process, and discuss how future. [mehr]

Fractional Excitonic Insulator

MPSD Seminar
We argue that a correlated fluid of electrons and holes can exhibit a fractional quantum Hall effect at zero magnetic field analogous to the Laughlin state at filling 1/m. We introduce a variant of the Laughlin wavefunction for electrons and holes and show that for m=1 it describes a Chern insulator that is the exact ground state of a free fermion model with p_x + i p_y excitonic pairing. [mehr]

Unconventional Charge Density Wave Transitions

MPSD Seminar
Historically charge density waves have been associated with the notions of Fermi surface nesting and, at the transition temperature, a soft phonon mode. In this talk, I will present two cases that defy this common theme. First, I will show that TiSe2 undergoes a transition due to exciton condensation, which exhibits a soft mode of a different, electronic variety. Second, when driving the system away from equilibrium, the phase transition is mediated by topological defects. These defects allow for the formation of a charge density wave that does not occur in equilibrium. This light-induced charge density wave shows some unique properties that suggest that it is not just a trivial extension of an equilibrium one. [mehr]

Ab initio few-mode theories for quantum potential scattering problems

MPSD Seminar
The concept of a single mode of the electromagnetic field interacting with matter has been a paradigm in the field of light-matter interactions. For example, the single mode Jaynes-Cummings model and its many generalizations have been indispensable tools in studying the quantum dynamics of various systems. In particular in cavity and circuit QED, where strong light-matter coupling is routinely achieved in experiment, such models have been tremendously successful [1]. [mehr]

Shedding New Light on Dirac Materials with Nonlinear Optics

MPSD Seminar
Nonlinear optics has recently emerged as an attractive approach for both probing topological properties and driving Dirac materials into new states. Here, I will describe our use of ultrafast nonlinear optics to study three representative Dirac materials: graphene micro-ribbons, topological insulators, and Weyl semimetals. [mehr]

Quantum enhanced super-resolution microscopy

MPSD Seminar
Although the principles of quantum optics have yielded multiple ideas to surpass the classical limitations in optical microscopy, their application in life science imaging has remained extremely challenging. In this talk, I will present two works that apply measurements of photon correlations for the benefit of localization microscopy and image scanning microscopy (ISM). The first uses photon antibunching measurement to estimate the number of emitters in a fluctuating scene and can potentially speed-up super-resolution techniques based on localization microscopy [1]. In the second work, we employ photon antibunching as the imaging contrast itself. Measuring the spatial distribution of ‘missing’ photon pairs in an ISM architecture may enhance lateral resolution four time beyond the diffraction limit [2]. The robustness of the antibunching signal enabled super-resolved imaging of fixed cells, relying solely on a quantum contrast. [mehr]

Non-equilibrium control of the effective free energy landscape in a frustrated magnet

MPSD Seminar
Geometrically frustrated magnets often possess accidentally degenerate ground states at zero temperature. At low temperature, thermal fluctuations lift the accidental degeneracy and tend to stabilize ground states with maximal entropy. This phenomenon, known as “order by disorder”, underlines the fluctuation contribution to the free energy landscape in frustrated magnets.In this talk, I show that one can control such free energy landscape in a non-equilibrium setting. In a frustrated magnet with precessional dynamics, the system’s slow drift motion within the degenerate ground state manifold is governed by the fast modes out of the manifold. Exciting these fast modes generates a tuneable effective free energy landscape with minima located at thermodynamically unstable portions of the ground state manifold. I demonstrate this phenomenon on pyrochlore XY antiferromagnet, where a magnetic field pulse is sufficient for controlling the effective free energy landscape at nonequilibrium. [mehr]

Coherent states of light and ordered states of matter in cavity QED

MPSD Seminar
Collective phenomena originating from interactions between light and matter have become a major focus of interest spanning different fields of research. [mehr]

Single-shot optical probing of laser-generated plasmas

MPSD Seminar
Lasers have captured scientific interest since their inception and increase in the on-target intensity has resulted in powerful petawatt (≈1015W) laser systems across the globe [1]. Such a laser gives the possibility to study and optimize processes such as electron [2] or ion [3] acceleration resulting from interaction of extreme electric fields (E ≥ 0.5 TV/m) with matter 0. In this talk, I would outline the current efforts of POLARIS (a Petawatt laser system) in Jena to study the effects of such laser-plasma interaction. A single-shot all optical probing was performed with Aluminum targets to fully characterize the plasma evolution. The basic motivation of the work, the experimental setup used and some results would be presented in the talk. [mehr]

Manipulating quantum materials with cavity fields

MPSD Seminar
We investigate ground state properties of electronic materials strongly coupled to cavity fields. In a two-dimensional electron gas, we explore electron paring mediated by vacuum fluctuations of the transverse electromagnetic field. To date, these interactions have only been discussed in free space, where their impact is restricted to extremely low temperatures. We argue that the sub-wavelength confinement of the light field in nanoplasmonic cavities can enhance the induced interaction to an experimentally accessible regime. In a one-dimensional Hubbard model, the cavity further enhances magnetic couplings at half-filling, and introduces next-nearest-neighbor hopping. References: F. Schlawin, A. Cavalleri, and D. Jaksch, arXiv:1804.07142. M. Kiffner, J. Coulthard, F. Schlawin, A. Ardavan and D. Jaksch, arXiv: 1806.06752. [mehr]

Nonequilibrium dynamics in strongly correlated systems: spin-charge coupling in a photodoped Mott insulator and possible induced superconductivity

MPSD Seminar
Nonequilibrium pump-probe time-domain spectroscopy opens new perspectives in studying the dynamical properties of the strongly correlated electron systems. In particular, the interplay between different degrees of freedom in strongly correlated materials can be studied by their temporal evolution [1] and also the optical switching to some novel phases is possible [2]. [mehr]
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